Commissioning and Research Toolkit
This section provides a selection of tools and guidance documents to help commissioners use the knowledge, evidence and innovation outputs derived from Research. The material aims to improve:-
- Commissioner decision making
- Evidence based policy making
- Evidence based innovation introduced at scale
Evidence informed decision making is vital in order to meet the triple aim of health care. Decision makers can be subject to conscious and unconscious bias. Decisions can be influenced by stakeholder expectations, organisational culture and other inherent factors. A study by Clarke et al (2013) found that 50% of healthcare decisions made by commissioners in the study were not based on clinical evidence, and 50% were not based on the consideration of cost-effectiveness of the various decision options.
(Clarke A, Taylor- Phillips S, Swan J, et al. Evidence-based commissioning in the English NHS: who uses which sources of evidence? A survey 2010/2011. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002714. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013- 002714)
Use the Key Documents list at the bottom of this page to browse a selection of papers and reports relating to the use of evidence in delivering innovation into the NHS. Use the Actionable Tools listing below to browse a list of selected research and innovation tools.
A Directory of actionable tools
It is well established that considerable resources are invested in health and social care research yet there is an acknowledged gap between what is known and what is acted upon (Graham et al., 2006). This is often referred to as the evidence-practice/policy gap. One means of addressing this gap is to identify research derived products or ‘actionable tools’ that can support the work of policy makers, commissioners, practitioners, and patients. Within the South Yorkshire CLAHRC there was experience to support this idea. For example, we know that pen portraits developed by the Keeping Warm in Later Life projecT (KWILLT) (http://kwillt.org/index.php/pen-portraits) supported policy change at a national level in the Cold Weather Plan, and in the local commissioning of services in South Yorkshire.
This NHS England sponsored this project with the dual aim of developing a consensus definition of what is meant by the term actionable tool and using this to identify NIHR research products from across Yorkshire and Humber.
Towards a definition
The research team from Sheffield Hallam University have used two rounds of a Delphi study to develop a consensus definition of what constitutes an actionable tool. The Delphi technique is a structured process that uses a series of questionnaires or ‘rounds’ to gather information to a sample ( panel) of experts in the field in question. After each questionnaire round the results are analysed, a new questionnaire developed and this together with summary data from the previous round is sent back to the panel. The initial definition used within the Delphi was developed during a workshop with practitioners and knowledge mobilisation experts from across the CLAHRC YH (http://clahrc-yh.nihr.ac.uk/).
Finalised definition of an actionable tool
A research derived actionable tool is a product informed by research study findings that is intended to change the way of thinking, promote decision making or instigate action around an issue. Actionable tools are characterised by:
- RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE : you can recognise the research findings within the tool.
- MEANS of COMMUNICATION: the approach to communicating the findings shows consideration of the target audience, and how they prefer to receive information.
- PROMPT: the tool invites the target audience to reflect on the research findings and triggers appropriate action within the local setting.
Finding the ‘actionable tools’
The project team have undertaken a trawl of NIHR research streams within Yorkshire and Humber and, by contacting principal investigators, have identified candidate ‘actionable tools.’ These tools have then been analysed against the consensus definition to ensure they key characteristics of research knowledge, means of communication and prompt.
This portal includes research derived actionable tools which meet the consensus definition and therefore should be of use to which we hope will be of use to NHS staff and others.
|Click on the links below to read more on each of the tools in the database.|
The Theoretical Domains Framework (Michie et al.'s 2005) to develop a five stepped approach to behaviour change
|Click on the links below to see opportunities from the world of healthcare research.|
This assessment of evaluation needs in relation to the Better Care Fund (BCF) in the Yorkshire and Humber Region has been carried out by the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research...